FCE Test 18 - Reading and Use of English (có giải thích đáp án chi tiết)

8/21/2021 4:48:44 PM

Read the text and decide which answer best fits each gap.

THE PRICE OF EDUCATION

Recently, more and more students have started to take up full-time paid work while they are still studying. This means that some of them end up actually leaving their degree courses because they see the advantages of having a stable and feel that this is more useful than getting a degree. Earning a reasonable wage means that they are able to begin to the debts they have run up while they were at college or university.

Why do they have these debts? Sometimes it is because they are not good at managing their money and overspend on entertainment and clothes. Sometimes it is not their . Banks are keen to offer students credit cards and it's very easy to build up a big . It's almost impossible for students to cover all the of accommodation and other necessary expenses.

It can be depressing to start working life but that is the way it is for many students. Universities can charge high fees, and the price of a university education is going up all the time. Nowadays, not everyone, it seems, is willing to spend that of money, and in future there may be fewer graduates coming into the workplace. Perhaps instead of in stocks and shares we should all put mop money into subsidizing education. 

Read the text and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only ONE word in each gap.

Diving in the Red Sea

The Red Sea coast of Egypt is surely one of the best places in the world to go underwater diving. Its hot sunny climate and clear warm water make it the ideal place for beginners as as for experienced divers, at any time of the year. 

In over fifty diving centres in the area, many different types of diving are possible. At centres for complete beginners there are training courses include simple dives with a qualified instructor. These dives them used to being underwater and teach some basic skills as swimming and breathing below the surface. 

More experienced divers can choose a vast range of possible activities and many of these can be enjoyed as part of a group or, if they prefer, alone. Some like to explore the coast of the National Park, where the steep cliffs extend underwater to a depth of more than seventy metres. For dives of this kind it is advisable to be accompanied by a guide, on of the strong currents which can suddenly change direction. 

For really advanced divers, there are some fascinating wrecks at the bottom of the Red Sea. visits to these old ships require quite long boat trips, it is well worth going to see the huge variety of beautiful plants and fish down there. 

Read the text and use the word given in capitals at each gap to form a word that fits in each gap.

Penguins are flightless birds which live south of the Equator. As their legs are short, they (USUAL) stand upright and walk when they are on land. When they find it (NEED) to travel at greater speed, they often drop onto their stomachs and slide along. But it is at sea, (SPECIAL) when diving, that penguins really move fast, the (WEIGH) of their streamlined bodies allowing them to reach a depth of up to 265 meters in some cases.

The sixteen species of penguin tend to look rather (LIKE) with black or dark blue backs and white fronts. But (VARY) in size and head patterns allow them to be (IDENTIFY) . The fact that a number of species spend their whole life in Antarctica where there is little protection from the world's least (WELCOME) weather conditions, makes their continued survival one of the wonders of the nature.

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

The heavy summer rainfall has caused severe floods. (BROUGHT)

=> Severe floods the heavy summer rainfall.

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

Although he had hurt his hand, Don still did his violin practice. (HIS)

=> Despite , Don still did his violin practice.

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

My elder sister likes to look after small children. (CARE)

=> My elder sister enjoys small children.

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

'I think you should buy yourself a new jacket, Mark,' said Judith. (ADVISED)

=> Judith a new jacket. 

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

This motorbike is not as noisy as my previous one. (MADE)

=> My previous this one.

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

Please don't keep boasting about the grade you got in the exam. (STOP)

=> I wish about the grade you got in the exam. 

You are going to read an article. Choose the answer which you think fits best according to the text.

Genealogy

Genealogy, or researching your family tree, is a hobby that can rapidly develop into an obsession. Before you start looking for your own ancestors, read this advice from genealogist Maria McLeod.

The first question to ask yourself is why you want to research your family tree. Genealogy is not about discovering that you are the heir to the throne of an unknown country. It's about finding out more about yourself. For most people, the important question is 'why am I like I am?'. You might not look like other members of your immediate family and you want to know where your green eyes or curly hair come from. You may be curious about why you have such a quick temper or are utterly hopeless at mathematics. You may even be suffering from a medical condition and want to know if something in your genetic makeup has caused it.

Another common motive for researching your family tree is that you plan to visit the place that your ancestors came from and you secretly hope that you will find some long-lost cousins with whom you can share your memories. There can be few more exciting things than meeting a distant cousin who is living on the other side of the globe and finding that she looks just like your younger sister. But you should also bear in mind that they may not necessarily want to have anything to do with you. Sometimes there are skeletons in the cupboard that you and your branch of the family are unaware of, but which are still fresh in the minds of your more distant relatives.

This brings up an important aspect of this kind of research that some people do not anticipate. Of course, you want to find out about yourself and what makes you 'you', but you may not be so keen on discovering some unpleasant facts about your relatives. Your ancestors were human beings too, and there is no reason to expect them to have led blameless lives. It is all part of your own history, after all, and if you are going to do the research, you should accept this fact and understand that you cannot change it.

Once you are clear about your motives, you need to take a moment to think about just how many ancestors you might have and how far back you intend to go. You have, no doubt, thought about your parents' parents and your parents' parents' parents; you may even know quite a bit about them. But go back ten generations and the picture becomes much more complicated. To begin with, many more people are involved. You can work it out for yourself. You may be descended from no fewer than 1024 people through ten generations and that means there are a lot of different individuals to trace and stories to check. This can mean that you spend hours going through official records, either in person at the records office or on the Internet. Are you prepared for such a huge task?

Simply starting the search can be overwhelming and right now you are probably asking yourself 'Where do I begin?'. I have prepared a report which will put you on the right path to finding your family history. When you get this report, you will have a step-by-step method to follow. The report tells you where to begin and what kind of items you are searching for. It will also provide you with a great way to organise what you find so that future generations will benefit from your search. There will be dead ends and false trails that will have you tearing your hair out, but once you start to experience a little success, you will be hooked. And, with my report, you will experience success. I guarantee it!

What is Maria McLeod's first piece of advice to people researching their family tree?

  • 'Don't expect to find out that you are a member of a royal family.'
  • 'Be prepared to find out disturbing things about yourself.'
  • 'Don't expect to like your relatives in other parts of the world.'
  • 'You may find you have serious health problems you didnlt know about.'

According to Maria McLeod, which of the following is NOT a valid reason for researching your family tree?

  • You think you may have a hereditary illness.
  • You want to know if any of your ancestors looked like you.
  • You suspect you may have royal relatives.
  • You think you may have a similar character to your ancestors.

You might have to accept that your ancestors _____

  • did not want to be found out.
  • were not like you at all.
  • were rather unpleasant.
  • did some things that were wrong.

What does the word 'it' refer to?

  • How far back you should go in your research
  • How many people you are descended from
  • Why doing genealogical research is so complicated
  • When the tenth generation were alive

Why might you think twice about researching your family tree?

  • You already know about your greatgrandparents.
  • Goihg back ten generations is too far.
  • You don't have time to do it.
  • You have a lot of relatives.

Maria McLeod has written the article to _____

  • encourage people to research their family history.
  • put people off researching their family's past.
  • share an experience of researching the past.
  • promote instructions on genealogy research.

You are going to read an article in which the writer looks at the harm done by plastic bags and ways of reducing this. Six sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A - G the one which fits each gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

A. Major changes in public opinion and behaviour can certainly occur.

B. On land they are everywhere, too. 

C. These range from cheap 'bags for life' offers to bag-free check-outs.

D. Worse still, billions get into the environment, especially the ocean environment, where they become a terrible threat to wildlife.

E. But there was a very different pattern of household shopping then: the purchase of a much smaller number of items, on a daily basis, after a walk to small, local shops.

F. She realised then that it was too late to do anything about this man-made disaster.

G. This quickly brought about a quite amazing reduction of 90 per cent, from 1.2 billion bags a year to fewer than 200,000 and an enormous increase in the use of cloth bags.

Getting rid of plastic bags

by Michael McCarthy

Plastic bags are one of the greatest problems of the consumer society - or to be more precise, of the throwaway society. First introduced in the United States in 1957, and into the rest of the world by the late 1960s, they have been found so convenient that they have come to be used in massive numbers. In the world as a whole, the annual total manufactured now probably exceeds a trillion - that is, one million billion, or 1,000,000,000,000,000.

According to a recent study, whereas plastic bags were rarely seen at sea in the late eighties and early nineties, they are now being found almost everywhere across the planet, from Spitsbergen in the Arctic to the South Atlantic close to Antarctica. They are among the 12 items of rubbish most often found in coastal clean-ups. Windblown plastic bags are so common in Africa that a small industry has appeared: harvesting bags and using them to make hats and other items, with one group of people collecting 30,000 per month. In some developing countries, they are a major nuisance in blocking the drainage systems of towns and villages.

What matters is what happens to them after use. Enormous numbers end up being buried or burnt, which is an enormous waste of the oil products which have gone into their manufacture. Turtles mistake them for their jellyfish food and choke on them; birds mistake them for fish with similar consequences; dolphins have been found with plastic bags preventing them from breathing properly.

The wildlife filmmaker Rebecca Hosking was shocked by the effects of the bags on birds on the Pacific island of Midway. She found that two-fifths of the 500,000 albatross chicks born each year die, the vast majority from swallowing plastic that their parents have mistakenly brought back as food. As a result, she started a movement to turn her hometown into the first community in the country to be free of plastic bags. Many local residents and shopkeepers joined in, and the idea of getting rid of them completely soon spread to other towns and villages. 

Although some people remain unconvinced, it does seem possible that the entire country could eventually become plastic-bag-free. Who could have imagined half a century ago that our public places would one day all become cigarette-smoke-free? Or that we would all be using lead-free petrol? Who would have thought even a decade ago, come to that, that about two-thirds of us would by now be actively involved in recycling?

What is needed is a general change in consumer attitudes, towards the habit of using reusable shopping bags. Older people will remember how this used to be entirely normal as every household had a 'shopping bag', a strong bag which was used to carry items bought in the daily trip to the shops. Today, many of us tend to drive to the supermarket once a week and fill up the car with seven days' worth of supplies, for which plastic bags, of course, are fantastically useful. It's a hard habit to break. 

However, there has already been a big drop in plastic bag use, partly because the leading supermarkets and other shopkeepers are making a major effort to help us give up the habit, with a whole variety of new ideas. It is clear that habits are starting to change; reusable bags are more visible than they were even two years ago.

Many believe there should be a tax on plastic bags, and the governments of a number of countries are considering the idea. What people have in mind is the example of Ireland, where a tax of €0.22 was introduced on all plastic bags, the first of its kind in the world. In addition, all the money from the new tax is used for environmental clean-up projects.

You are going to read a magazine article about some inventions. Choose the section that contains the information in each question. The sections may be chosen more than once.

Where did they come from?

Angela Stewart looks at four everyday items we take for granted and asks 'Where did they come from?'. 

A. The Safe Pin
Walter Hunt had come up with numerous other inventions before he created the safety pin in 1849. None of them, however, had made him any money! Owing fifteen dollars to a friend, he decided to invent something new to make enough to pay back the debt. He took a piece of wire, coiled it in the centre, shielded one end and - hey presto - he'd created the world's first safety pin. He took out a patent on his invention, sold the rights to it for four hundred dollars, paid his friend back and had 385 dollars to spare. Then he watched his latest brainwave go on to become a million-dollar earner for someone else! 

B. The Ice Cream Cone
The first ice cream cone was produced in New York in 1896 by Italo Marchiony, who had emigrated from Italy only a few years before. He was granted a patent in December 1903. As with many great inventions, a similar creation was independently introduced in 1904 by Charles Menches. He was selling ice cream in dishes, like all ice-cream sellers at the time, at the St Louis World Fair. So many people were ordering ice cream that he ran out of dishes. He looked around, and saw a Syrian man selling a Middle Eastern dessert called 'Zalabia', a wafer-like pastry sold with syrup. 'Give me Zalabia,' cried Menches. He rolled up the Zalabia into a cone, scooped his ice cream onto the top and the second ice cream cone was born!

C. Correction Fluid
You know that white stuff you paint on paper to cover mistakes? It was originally called 'Mistake Out' and was the invention of Bette Nesmith Graham. After her divorce, she realized she would have to find a job to support herself and her son, so in 1951 she became a typist. Unfortunately, she was not a particularly good one, and soon recognized the need for a white paint which could be used to cover all her mistakes. Using her kitchen and garage as a laboratory and factory, she gradually developed a product that other secretaries and office workers began to buy. While continuing to work as a secretary, she educated herself in business methods and promotion. Bette offered 'Mistake Out' to IBM, who turned it down. Undeterred, she changed the name to 'Liquid Paper' and continued to sell it from home for the next seventeen years. In 1979, 'Liquid Paper' was bought by Gillette for $47.5 million plus royalties! Incidentally, Bette was also the mother of Mike Nesmith, a member of the well-known sixties pop group 'The Monkees'. 

D. The Tin Opener
Strangely enough, the first practical tin opener was developed more than forty years after the metal tin was introduced. Tinned food was developed for the British Navy in 1813. Made of solid iron, the tins usually weighed more than the food they held! Although the inventor, Peter Durand, successfully figured out how to seal food into tins, he gave little thought as to how to get it out again. The instructions read: 'Cut round the top with a chisel and hammer.' It was only when steel tins were brought out that the tin opener was invented. The first was devised by Ezra Warner in 1858. This type never left the shop, as a shop assistant opened all tins before they were taken away! The more modern tin opener, with a cutting wheel, was invented by William Lyman in 1870. Pull-open tins, which do not need a tin opener at all, were introduced in 1966. 

Which of the paragraphs does the writer state the inventor had a famous son?
  • The Safe Pin
  • The Ice Cream Cone
  • Correction Fluid
  • The Tin Opener
Which of the paragraphs does the writer state the inventor had not been in the country long?
  • The Safe Pin
  • The Ice Cream Cone
  • Correction Fluid
  • The Tin Opener
Which of the paragraphs does the writer state someone else became rich because of the invention?
  • The Safe Pin
  • The Ice Cream Cone
  • Correction Fluid
  • The Tin Opener
Which of the paragraphs does the writer state this was not the inventor's first invention?
  • The Safe Pin
  • The Ice Cream Cone
  • Correction Fluid
  • The Tin Opener
Which of the paragraphs does the writer state members of the public never used the first version?
  • The Safe Pin
  • The Ice Cream Cone
  • Correction Fluid
  • The Tin Opener
Which of the paragraphs does the writer state the inventor was not very skilled at his/her job?
  • The Safe Pin
  • The Ice Cream Cone
  • Correction Fluid
  • The Tin Opener
Which of the paragraphs does the writer state two people came up with the idea separately?
  • The Safe Pin
  • The Ice Cream Cone
  • Correction Fluid
  • The Tin Opener
Which of the paragraphs does the writer state a change in production resulted in the creation of a new product?
  • The Safe Pin
  • The Ice Cream Cone
  • Correction Fluid
  • The Tin Opener
Which of the paragraphs does the writer state the invention eventually led to great wealth for the inventor?
  • The Safe Pin
  • The Ice Cream Cone
  • Correction Fluid
  • The Tin Opener
Which of the paragraphs does the writer state the inventor got an idea from another culture?
  • The Safe Pin
  • The Ice Cream Cone
  • Correction Fluid
  • The Tin Opener