TOEFL Junior Practice Test 4 - Reading Comprehension

10/27/2019 10:44:01 PM
Bài thi thử Reading Comprehension số 4 theo đúng mẫu đề chuẩn của TOEFL Junior, gồm 6 bài đọc hiểu với 42 câu hỏi.

In this section of the test, you will read six tests and answer 42 questions. Choose the correct answer to each question.

Before you start, read the sample text and the sample question below.

Sample text

Erosion is one of nature's most powerful forces. It can happen in many ways, including through the wind, rain, snow, and ice, Erosion frequently takes place over a long period of time. This is how canyons and deserts are often created. Yet it is also possible for erosion to take place overnight.

Sample Question 1

What is this text mostly about?

(A) How deserts are created

(B) A natural force

(C) Canyons and deserts

(D) Wind erosion

The correct answer is (B), "A natural force."

Sample Question 2

Which of the following is true regarding erosion?

(A) It can happen in many ways

(B) Water most commonly causes it

(C) It can create deserts overnight

(D) It is stronger than anything in nature

The correct answer is (A), "It can happen in many ways"

 

Read the following article in the school newspaper.

   When the spring semester began, students at Eastern I Ugh School were met by a new science teacher. Her name is Elaine Burgess, and she has replaced Donald Young, who retired to spend time with his grandchildren.

   Since Ms. Burgess has just started here, many students are curious about her background. She was kind enough to sit down for an interview with The Quill and Paper. According to Ms. Burgess, she received her master's degree from near-by Sanderson University only six months ago. Her M.A. is in chemistry, but she double majored in chemistry and biology as an undergraduate while simultaneously getting a minor in physics.

  "I love all aspects of science," she said. "And I'm looking forward to teaching students the things I know." Ms. Burgess further declared that she prefers a hands-on approach to teaching science. So she expects to conduct numerous experiments in the hope of sparking students' interest in science.

  Finally, Ms. Burgess added that she welcomes student participation in her classes. "Not only can students learn from their teachers, but I believe that teachers can also learn from their students. I hope that, by working together, we can all increase our knowledge of science."

 

 Which headline best summarizes the article?

  • Science classes to feature hands-on learning
  • A chat with the new science teacher
  • The education of Elaine Burgess
  • Science class: Does anyone enjoy it?

 Based on the article, what is probably true about The Quill and Papre?

  • It is read by every student
  • It is a new textbook
  • It was written by Ms. Burgess
  • It is the name of a newspaper

 Which of the following statements does paragraph 2 support?

  • This is the second teaching job for Ms. Burgess
  • Ms. Burgess has been a teacher for six months
  • Ms. Burgess was a professor at Sanderson University
  • Ms. Burgess focused on science as an undergraduate

 What does the author point out by writing about Ms. Burgess's hope of sparking students' interest in science in paragraph 3?

  • Too many students have little scientific knowledge
  • She wants students to be curious about sciences
  • Science is one of the hardest subjects to learn
  • Some experiments can be dangerous for students to do

 What can be inferred from the article about Ms. Burgess?

  • Some of her students know more about science than her
  • Her grades in graduate school were high
  • She expects her students to speak in class
  • The subject she knows the least is biology

Read the following notice.

Attention, all students. 
     Several local elementary schools are in serious need of tutors. Due to cut in their budgets, they can no longer hire tutors for their students for after-school classes. Therefore, they are looking to replace their paid tutors with volunteers. They have specifically requested tutors in math, science, and English. However, they would also like to have tutors for music, art, and penmanship classes. 
     If any of you are interested in tutoring young children, please talk to your home-room teacher. As a tutor, you would be expected to visit your school three times a week. You would start at 3:30 in the afternoon and teach for approximately one hour. A teacher here can provide transportation to your school and home if you require it
     To qualify as a tutor, you must have an average in the subject you wish to teach. You must also be of good character and be willing to work with young children. Anyone who serves as a tutor will be exempted from the school's volunteer program. Those who do not do any tutoring will be expected to volunteer at least fifty hours this semester. 

 

 In paragraph 1, the word specifically is closest in meaning to

  • consistently
  • recently
  • reportedly
  • expressly

 What does the author say about the local elementary schools?

  • They are going to hire new paid tutors
  • They only need tutors in three subjects
  • They would like students to serve as tutors
  • They want their tutors to work every day

 In paragraph 2, the word it refers to 

  • approximately one hour
  • transportation
  • your school
  • home

 According to the notice, all of the following are true about tutors EXCEPT

  • They are expected to get to the schools by themselves
  • They can teach students a wide variety of topics
  • They should go to their schools three times each week
  • They will finish tutoring around four thirty in the afternoon

 What does the author imply about tutors?

  • It is possible for them to increase their grades by tutoring
  • Not all students are qualified to work as them
  • Some of them can teach students at their homes
  • They should expect to get paid for their work

 In paragraph 3, phrase exempted from is closest in meaning to

  • recommended to
  • excused from
  • requested by
  • appointed to

Read the following passage.

     Jupiter is by far the largest planet in the solar system. It also has a force of gravity that is second in the solar system only to the sun in power. It should, therefore, come as no surprise that Jupiter has the most moons of all the planets. Jupiter has at least sixty-three moons and may have more waiting to be discovered. The majority of these moons are small in size, yet four are quite large. In fact, one is larger than the planet Mercury while the other three are bigger than Pluto. Together, these four moons are called Galilean moons. The reason is that they were discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. 
     The largest of the Galilean moons are Ganymede while the other three are Io, Europa, and Callisto. These moons have some characteristics that make them enticing to astronomers. For instance, Io is one of the most volcanically active bodies in the solar system. Europa, on the other hand, is covered with a thick layer of ice, yet astronomers believe that liquid water lies beneath it. Ganymede and Canino may also have liquid water deep beneath their surfaces. 

 What is the best title for the passage?

  • Jupiter and Moons
  • The Gallean Moons
  • The moon Ganymede
  • Moons in the Solar System

 According to the passage, which is true about Jupiter's moons?

  • Three of them are larger than Mercury
  • Most of them formed at the same time
  • Some of them used to be asteroids
  • There are more than sixty of them

 Why does the author mention Galileo Galilei?

  • To name the man who discovered the Galilean moons
  • To credit him with finding all of Jupiter's moons
  • To describe the work that he did in astronomy
  • To give the year when he did a science experiment

 What does the author imply about Ganymede?

  • It is larger than Mercury
  • It may have life on it
  • It has more water than Earth
  • It is the closest moon to Jupiter

 In paragraph 2, the word enticing is closest in meaning to 

  • engaging
  • seductive
  • mysterious
  • appealing

 In paragraph 2, the word it refers to 

  • the solar system
  • Europa
  • a thick layer of ice
  • liquid water

 Which of the following statements does paragraph 2 support?

  • Europa is larger than Io and Callisto
  • Ganymede is covered with liquid water
  • Io has volcanoes that currently erupt
  • Europa's orbit is longer than Io's

Read the following passage.

     A fossil is the preserved remains of an animal or plant that died long ago. In general, the fossil has transformed into stone and either has the shape or shows the outline of a dead animal or plant. Oftentimes, only the bones and teeth of animals are preserved. In the case of plants, most fossils are simply impressions of the leaves or stems that are set in stone. There are some instances in which paleontologists have unearthed fossils that include skin and bodily tissues, such as when animals are found encased in ice or tar, but these happen rarely. No matter what the condition of the fossils scientists find, they can be used to learn a great deal of information about life on Earth in the past. 

     Earth is around 4.5 billion years old, and humans have been on the planet for a mere fraction of that time. Thus, fossils enable scientists to understand what life was like on Earth prior to the existence of humans. Virtually everything that is known about dinosaurs, for instance, comes from studying their fossilized remains. Scientists have learned that there was a wide variety of species of dinosaurs. Some were carnivores while others were herbivores. They also ranged in size from ex-tremely small to incredibly large. 

     In addition, fossils help scientists make timelines for the distant path. In the nineteenth century, scientists concluded that different levels of the Earth contained fossils from different eras. By examining the fossils from each level, scientists were able to see how life had evolved on the planet. Later, in the twentieth century, methods of accurately dating fossils were discovered. These permitted scientists to develop something called the geological time scale. It provides a detailed picture of life on Earth throughout different periods of time. For instance, dinosaurs first appeared around 250 million years ago and then vanished around sixty-five million years ago. Ever since then, mammals have dominated the planet. It is thanks to fos-sils that this kind of information is known. 

 What is the passage mostly about?

  • The importance of fossils
  • Where to find fossils
  • Dinosaur fossils
  • The geological time scale

 In paragraph 1, the phrase encased in is closest in meaning to

  • applied with
  • buried at
  • covered with
  • removed from

 In paragraph 1, the word they refers to

  • skin and bodily tissues
  • animals
  • the fossils
  • scientists

 Which of the following is true regarding fossils of plants?

  • They are sometimes found in ice
  • Most of them are not complete plants
  • Their flowers are often preserved
  • They are sometimes entire trees

 The author mentions all of the following about dinosaurs EXCEPT

  • how they died
  • what they ate
  • how large they were
  • how diverse they were

 What does the geological time scale do?

  • It analyzes the rocks and minerals that are found on the Earth
  • It confirms that the Earth is more than 4.5 billion years old
  • It shows the animals that have lived on the Earth throughout time
  • It proves that animals such as dinosaurs once lived on the Earth

 Based on the passage, what is probably true about dinosaurs?

  • They died when a comer hit the Earth
  • There are no living ones on the Earth
  • Most of them were smaller than humans
  • They lived for more than 250 million years

 In paragraph 3, the word dominated is closest in meaning to

  • abandoned
  • lived with
  • survived on
  • ruled

Read the following passage then choose the best answer to each question below.

     An engine is a machine that creates mechanical motion from energy. In order to do this, an engine frequently requires some type of fuel to burn. Nowadays, many engines are used to power cars and other forms of transportation. These vehicles most commonly have an internal combustion engine and rely upon gasoline for power. However, there are several types of engines that can use alternative energy sources. Many people are trying to switch to them because gasoline, which is a fossil fuel, creates pollution and is also a nonrenewable resource. Alternative energy sources, meanwhile, create less pollution and are often renewable sources of energy. 

     These days, engines that are able to burn biofuels are somewhat common. Biofuels are fuels that are made from biological material, such as corn, soybeans, and sugarcane. These biofuels burn cleanly, so they produce much less pollution than fossil fuels. In some countries, such as Brazil: cars with biofuel engines are standard. In fact, most of the cars in Brazil have engines that can operate on either gasoline or biofuel.

    A second type of alternative engine is the electric engine. Cars with electric engines have been common for decades. Most are being used in hybrid cars at the moment. These are vehicles that have both a gasoline-powered engine and an electric one. In many cases, the gasoline-powered engine is used to operate the car at high speeds on expressways. The electric engine is utilized for city driving. One benefit of hybrid cars is that as the gasoline-powered engine runs, it simultaneously recharges the electric engine. 

     A third type of alternative engine is the hydrogen engine. It utilizes hydrogen fuel cells, which convert hydrogen into electricity that can power the car. These days, there are many cars and buses that rely upon hydrogen engines. However, there are some problems associated with this type of engine. The hydrogen used in the engine must be processed from other materials, and it is also difficult to store. As a result, vehicles that run on hydrogen are expensive. 

 What would be the best title for the passage?

  • Biofuels: Can they really run car engines?
  • Cars to use internal combustion engines
  • New types of alternative energy engines
  • What is the best type of vehicle engine?

In paragraph 1, the word "switch" is closest in meaning to ______.

  • remove
  • change
  • appear
  • respond

 Based on paragraph 1, what is probably true about alternative energy sources?

  • They have only a great deal to produce.
  • They cost a great deal to produce.
  • They are less common than fossil fuels.
  • They are rejected by the majority of people.

 The author uses corn, soybeans, and sugarcane as examples of _________.

  • Crops that are grown in Brazil.
  • Things that can be turned into biofuels.
  • Biological materials that grow quickly.
  • Plants that can be eaten by people.

 What does the author say about biofuels in Brazil?

  • They are used more than gasoline.
  • Many Brazilians approve of them.
  • They were first discovered there.
  • Many cars there can run on them.

 When do many hybrid cars use their electric engines?

  • When being driven in the countryside.
  • When being driven on city streets.
  • When being driven on highways.
  • When being driven on expressways.

In paragraph 3, the word "recharges" is closest in meaning to ________.

  • resumes
  • repels
  • reveals
  • refreshes

 According to the passage, all of the following statements are true about hydrogen engines EXCEPT ________.

  • they cost a lot of money to operate
  • there are problems with their fuel source
  • cars and buses can both utilize them
  • renewing their batteries is difficult

Read the following passage.

     For hundreds of years, Rome was arguably the greatest civilization in the world. It started as a small town on the Tiber River in the Italian Peninsula. Then, first as a republic and later as an empire, it grew so that it controlled a huge amount of land in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. Then, in the fifth century A.D., the Roman Empire collapsed. Rome would never again be a great power in the world.

     There were many reasons that the Roman Empire fell. For instance, there were breakdowns in its political, economic, and social organization. In addition, the empire itself had been split into two halves - an eastern and a western empire. This was done with the intention of strengthening Rome, but in reality, the move actually weakened it. The final major reason for the fall of Rome was a series of invasions of its land by Germanic tribes. In 476, they sacked Rome and overthrew the last Roman emperor in the west. 

     For many years before its fall, Rome had been in turmoil. Emperors reigned for short periods of time before they were deposed and replaced by someone else. The empire was in a seemingly constant state of civil war, which disrupted Roman society. The Romans began to depend upon foreigners to man the armies that they kept on the borders of the empire. These foreigners had little or no allegiance to the empire, so Rome's defenses were weakened. Rome's economy also went into decline. Most of the free people in the empire were either rich elites or lowly farmers. There was no strong middle class in the empire. Corruption at all levels of the government caused additional economic problems.

     In an effort to solve many of these problems, Emperor Diocletian split the Roman Empire into two halves In the late fourth century. The Eastern Roman Empire, which later became known as the Byzantine Empire, started to flourish. Its emperor ruled from the city Constantinople, which was built by Emperor Constantine I. As for the Western Roman Empire, which was ruled from Rome, it declined further. During the fifth century, barbarian invaders conquered much of its territory. Its borderlands were overrun. Finally, the last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was overthrown by Germanic invaders led by Odoacer. He then assumed the title of king of Rome. 

 Which title best summarizes the main idea of the passage?

  • Emperor Diocletian of Rome
  • Why Empires go into Decline
  • The Eastern and Western Roman Empires
  • The fall of the Roman Empire

 In paragraph 2, the word intention is closest in meaning to 

  • regard
  • purpose
  • assumption
  • role

 Which of the following statements does paragraph 2 support?

  • The first defeat suffered by Rome was in 476
  • Rome engaged in a long war against Germanic tribes
  • Several factors led to the eventual defeat of Rome
  • Rome was invaded from both the east and west

 What does the author point out by writing that Rome had been in turmoil in paragraph 3?

  • Rome's economy declined
  • Rome was mostly at peace
  • Conditions in Rome were steady
  • There was disorder in Rome

 Which of the following is true regarding Rome's armies?

  • None of them was allowed to enter Rome
  • The ones on the borders had many foreigners
  • They were led into battle by the emperor
  • They were effective at protecting the empire

 What did Diocletian do to the Roman Empire?

  • He divided it into two parts
  • He weakened its borders
  • He moved its wealth to Constantinople
  • He used foreigners in its armies

 Why does the author talk about the Eastern Roman Empire?

  • To note that it was not conquered by Odoacer
  • To describe some actions of Emperor Constantine I
  • To prove that it outlasted the Byzantine Empire
  • To contrast it with the Western Roman Empire

 In paragraph 4, the word He refers to

  • Emperor Diocletian
  • Emperor Constantine I
  • Romulus Augustus
  • Odoacer