In this section of the test, you will read six texts and answer 42 questions. Choose the correct answer to each question.
Before you start, read the sample text and the sample question below.
Erosion is one of nature's most powerful forces. It can happen in many ways, including through the wind, rain, snow, and ice, Erosion frequently takes place over a long period of time. This is how canyons and deserts are often created. Yet it is also possible for erosion to take place overnight.
Sample Question 1
What is this text mostly about?
(A) How deserts are created
(B) A natural force
(C) Canyons and deserts
(D) Wind erosion
The correct answer is (B), "A natural force."
Sample Question 2
Which of the following is true regarding erosion?
(A) It can happen in many ways
(B) Water most commonly causes it
(C) It can create deserts overnight
(D) It is stronger than anything in nature
The correct answer is (A), "It can happen in many ways"
Read the following newspaper article.
Students often prefer to spend their weekends hanging out at the shopping mall or sitting at their homes and watching television. But, thanks to a new volunteer program at Samford High School, many of the students there are spending their weekends improving the lives of their neighbors.
Social studies teacher Wendy Foreman encouraged her students to do some volunteer work at least once a week as soon as the semester began. She even started a club, which is called Help Your Neighbors. The results were beyond belief.
"Nearly fifty percent of the entire student body joined the club," she said. The members of the club do all sorts of volunteer work. Some devote their time to area hospitals, soup kitchens, and animal shelters. Other students pick up trash in local parks and even along the sides of roads. And some students have organized a food drive that donates food to underprivileged locals every week.
Ms. Foreman commented, "I couldn't be prouder of these students. It's great to see them doing something productive during their free time. They're really getting involved in the community. They're definitely not typical teenagers."
What would be the most appropriate headline for this article?
In paragraph 2, the phrase beyond belief is closest in meaning to
What does the author say about Help Your Neighbors?
In paragraph 3, the word underprivileged is closest in meaning to
Which is NOT mentioned as volunteer work done by the students?
Based on her comments, how does Wendy Foreman feel about the students in Help Your Neighbors?
Read the following notice.
This year, we plan to take at least two field trips per semester. Please be aware of the following regarding field trips.
All students who are not yet eighteen years of age must submit a permission slip signed by a parent or guardian. This permission slip indicates that the parent or guardian consents to allow the student to go on the field trip. Failure to submit a permission slip by the day of the field trip means that the student may not accompany the others off-campus.
All students must also provide proof that they have medical insurance and that their insurance covers them in case of injury while on a field trip. Students may turn in this proof at the front office anytime. If it is not provided, the student will not be able to go on the field trip.
On-field trips, all students must be on their best behavior. Students are expected to listen to their teachers and to follow the rules and regulations of the places that they visit. Failure to do so will result in some sort of punishment, such as detention or suspension.
What is the purpose of the notice?
In paragraph 2, the word consents is closest in meaning to
Based on the notice, what is probably true about some students at the school?
In paragraph 3, the word it refers to
Which of the following statements does paragraph 3 support?
What will happen to students who misbehave while on field trips?
Read the following notice.
This summer, the school has decided to offer some special classes for students who desire to further their educations. These classes will not be offered for academic credit. In addition, students must pay a nominal fee of only $50 to attend them. These classes are going to be held from July 1 until August 10 and will meet every day from Monday to Friday from ten to noon. The following classes are being offered:
|An Introduction to Latin||Ms. Stigler||Learn the elements of Latin, one of the most important languages in Western culture|
|Automotive Repairs||Mr. Larnhardt||Learn how to repair cars including how to take apart and put together a car engine|
|The Basics of Cooking||Mr. Roundfield||Learn how to cook some simple entrees, appetizers, and desserts from one of the city's top chefs|
Each class is limited to fifteen students. Spots in the class will be filled on a first-come, first-served basis. However, students will have their reservations canceled if they do not pay the fee within three business days of making them. Find out more about the classes and make reservations by calling Mrs. Landers at 676-4000.
What is the best title for the notice?
In paragraph 1, the word nominal is closest in meaning to
Which of the following is true regarding the classes?
Which of the following can be inferred from the schedule about the classes?
According to the schedule, students can learn all of the following in the classes EXCEPT
In paragraph 2, the word them refers to
Read the following passage.
The atmosphere acts in several ways to support life on Earth. One of these is that it protects the planet from detrimental radiation emitted by the sun. In addition, the atmosphere provides life-giving oxygen for animals and carbon dioxide for plants. The atmosphere may appear simple, but it is actually complex and has distinct layers. These layers are divided based upon their height above sea level. There are five major layers of the atmosphere. They are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.
The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere closest to the Earth's surface. It extends from the ground to approximately seventeen kilometers above sea level at its highest point. This layer contains the greatest mass of the atmosphere around seventy-five to eighty percent. It is also the warmest layer and has most of the weather that people experience.
The stratosphere extends from the troposphere to around fifty kilometers above sea level. It contains most of the rest of the atmosphere in addition to the ozone layer. This is the region that keeps the Earth safe from much of the sun's radiation. Temperatures are very cold at the lower part of the stratosphere but become warmer higher up due to the absorption of radiation.
The next three layers are found high above the planet's surface. The first is the mesosphere, which extends from the stratosphere to around eighty-five kilometers above sea level. This is the region where most meteors are incinerated as they hit the atmosphere. Temperatures drop once again in this layer. They may decline to more than minus 100 degrees Celsius. The fourth layer is the thermosphere. It extends alt the way up to 690 kilometers above sea level. It is where the aurora borealis, or northern lights, form. In addition, most spacecraft and space stations orbit the planet there. Temperatures in the thermosphere vary from extremely cold to extremely hot. Last is the exosphere. It extends thousands of kilometers above the ground until there is no longer an atmosphere but only outer space. Instead, there are simply random molecules of hydrogen and helium.
In paragraph 1, the word detrimental is closest in meaning to
Based on the passage, what is probably true about the Earth's atmosphere?
Which of the following is true regarding the troposphere?
The author uses the ozone layer as an example of
In paragraph 3, the word this refer to
In paragraph 4, the word incinerated is closest in meaning to
Where are the aurora borealis found?
Which of the following statements does paragraph 4 support?
Read the following passage.
The American Founding Fathers were, as a group, among the most accomplished men in the history of any country. Among them were George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and John Adams. Another, who ranks as one of the greatest of them, was Thomas Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States. He was the founder of the University of Virginia. He was responsible for the Louisiana Purchase, which more than doubled the size of the United States. And, most importantly, he was the author of the Declaration of Independence. It stated that the American colonies were free from English rule. Born in 1743, Jefferson began receiving a classical education as a young child. He focused on learning languages, including Latin and Greek. He later went on to study at the College of William and Mary, the second-oldest college in America after Harvard. There, Jefferson focused on law, which enabled him to become one of America's most knowledgeable lawyers.
It was Jefferson's study of law that prompted him to become an early supporter of the American independence movement. In the 1760s and 1770s, England began to levy a number of taxes on the American colonists. Most colonists detested the taxes and considered them oppressive. The colonists further disliked the taxes because they had no representation in Parliament, the legislative body in England.
Jefferson was himself an elected member of the House of Burgesses. This was the legislative body of the colony of Virginia. He felt very strongly about the importance of the American colonies being represented in Parliament. Since King George III of England refused to allow that Jefferson spoke out strongly in favor of independence. He wrote essays in support of independence. Then, in a meeting of the Continental Congress in 1776, Jefferson - along with four other men - was chosen to write a declaration that the colonies were free from English rule. It took him seventeen days to come up with the document that would become known as the Declaration of Independence. Signed on July 4, 1776, it gave freedom to the American colonies and cemented Jefferson's place in history as one of the greatest supporters of the cause of freedom.
What is the best title for the passage?
In paragraph 1, the word them refers to
What does the author say about Thomas Jefferson?
Why does the author mention the College of William and Mary?
What does the author point out by writing that most colonists detested the taxes in paragraph 2?
What did King George III do?
In paragraph 3, the word cemented is closest in meaning to
Based on the passage, what is probably true about the Declaration of Independence?
Read the following passage.
The Vikings were fierce warriors that lived in Scandinavia. Today, Scandinavia comprises the lands occupied by the modern-day nations Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Starting in the eighth century and continuing until around the tenth, the Vikings began moving out of their homelands. They sailed to the south and west. At first, they simply raided areas and then returned to their homes. Later, they began settling down in great numbers in distant lands. The Vikings had settlements in parts of Russia, France, Sicily, England, Iceland, and Greenland. There was even one in North America for a short period of time. To make these voyages, the Vikings not only needed good ships but also had to excel at seafaring and navigating.
Viking ships were long and narrow and had good sea-keeping qualities. They were built in what is known as the clinker style. Long planks were overlapped and held together with iron rivets. This made the hulls of the ships very strong and therefore able to withstand rough seas. The Vikings built several kinds of ships. Some were used to carry cargo while others were built for war. Most Viking warships had a single mast and a single large square-shaped sail. They had positions for rowers on each side as well as room for both cargo and warriors. Furthermore, the ships had shallow drafts, so they could be easily beached on any shore. This lets them sail upmost river systems.
To navigate, the Vikings depended upon two methods. First, they utilized the knowledge that had been gained by their forefathers and passed down from generation to generation. Thus, the Vikings knew all the harbors, coves, islands, and rocks in their homelands. Once initial long-range voyages were made, the knowledge of how to get there and back was transmitted as well. Second, the Vikings had instruments to help them navigate by noting the position of the sun in the sky. The main instrument was known as a sunstone. It is a type of crystal. By looking at how the sun's rays passed through a sunstone, the Vikings could determine which way to sail. Even in cloudy weather, which was frequent in the places the Vikings sailed, a small amount of sunlight usually passed through the clouds. As a result, the Vikings could use their sunstones even during inclement weather conditions.
What is the passage mainly about?
According to the passage, which of the following is mentioned about Viking raids?
What does the author say about the clinker style?
In paragraph 2, the word withstand is closest in meaning to
According to the passage, all of the following statements about Viking warships are true EXCEPT
How did the Vikings learn to navigate in the waters around their homelands?
Why does the author talk about sunstones?
In paragraph 3, the word inclement is closest in meaning to