TOEFL Junior Practice Test 8 - Reading Comprehension

10/29/2019 1:41:47 PM
Bài thi thử Reading Comprehension số 8 theo đúng mẫu đề chuẩn của TOEFL Junior, gồm 6 bài đọc hiểu với 42 câu hỏi.

In this section of the test, you will read six texts and answer 42 questions. Choose the correct answer to each question.

Before you start, read the sample text and the sample question below.

Sample text

Sharks are misunderstood creatures. Many people believe that all sharks are brutal killers that hunt humans, but that is not true at all. Only a handful of sharks ever attack humans, and most of them do that by mistake. In fact, most sharks ignore humans completely and seek to avoid them.

Sample Question 1

What is this text mostly about?

(A) Which sharks attack humans

(B) Why sharks often ignore humans

(C) How many sharks behave around humans

(D) What to do when you see a shark

The correct answer is (C), "How many sharks behave around humans."

Sample Question 2

Which of the following is true regarding sharks?

  1. Most species of them attack humans.
  2. Many of them actively hunt people.
  3. A lot of them prefer to eat small sea creatures.
  4. The majority of them stay away from people.

The correct answer is (D), "The majority of them stay away from people."

 

Read the following announcement.

      All students who are enrolled in history and social studies classes this year should be aware of the following changes. We are making them because of the sudden departure of Mr. Sellers, who taught American history. Please consult the chart to note your new classrooms or instructors:

Class Classroom Instructor Change
American History 202 Mr. Alvarez New instructor
World History 202 Mr.Alvarez  New classroom
California State History 206 Ms. Handerson  New classroom
Social Studies 209 Mr. Nelson  New instructor

    Please be aware that the class times have not undergone any changes at all. Your classes will still meet according to the times listed on your schedule. However, either your instructor or your classroom is different from what is listed on your schedule. We apologize for any confusion that these changes may cause, but the matter is out of the school's control. Hopefully, there will not be any problems with these classes during the school year. The school will also hire a new history teacher by next semester so that our current teachers will not be so overworked.

 

 What is the purpose of the announcement?

  • To provide students with their final schedules
  • To request that students sign up for history classes
  • To inform students of some scheduling changes
  • To encourage students to take classes with new teachers

 What did Mr. Sellers do?

  • He quit his job
  • He got a promotion
  • He became sick
  • He changed departments

According to the announcement, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT

  • Mr. Alvarez is teaching world history
  • Social studies will meet in room 209
  • American history has a new teacher
  • Mr. Nelson is teaching California state history

 What does the announcement mention about the class times?

  • They have not changed at all
  • They are listed on a handout
  • They will be determined later
  • They will be altered next week

 What does the author point out by writing that the matter is out of the school's control in paragraph 2?

  • The school will try to control its teachers better.
  • The school regrets having to make the changes.
  • The school had no way of affecting what happened.
  • The school will compensate students for their losses.

 What can be inferred from the announcement about the school?

  • It has not replaced the teacher who departed.
  • It is going to make every teacher work more hours.
  • It intends to hire the most qualified teachers.
  • It is going to offer fewer history classes next semester.

Read the following letter.

Dear seniors,

     This year, many of you have chosen to register for advanced placement (AP) classes in the hope that you will be able to obtain college credit for the courses you take here. I hope you understand that the workload in an AP class is much greater than the workload in a standard class. After all, you are hoping to receive college credit for the AP class or classes that you signed up for, so doing extra work should be expected.

     In fact, you will have up to twice the normal amount of work in each AP class that you are taking. Please take this into consideration when signing up for extracurricular activities or working part-time. This is particularly true for students who have enrolled in multiple AP classes. Simply put, this will be the busiest school year of your life.

     If you find the work to be excessive, you may speak with either Mr. Reginald or me anytime. Just visit his or my office, and we will help you to the best of our ability. I wish the best of luck to you all in your senior year, and may you have both academic and personal success.

Margaret Lewis

Guidance Counselor

 What is the purpose of the letter?

  • To advise students about some of their classes
  • To convince students to register for AP classes
  • To let students know what the guidance counselors do
  • To tell students how to organize their schedules

 What does the author say about AP classes?

  • They must be taken at a local college.
  • They require more work than regular classes.
  • They are taught by university professors.
  • They are as difficult as college classes.

 What does the author imply about extracurricular activities?

  • The best ones for students to participate in are sports.
  • They are not as important as studying or working part-time.
  • It is necessary for students to sign up for some of them.
  • Students in AP classes may lack the time to do them.

 In paragraph 3, the word excessive is closest in meaning to

  • serious
  • monotonous
  • stimulating
  • extreme

 Based on the letter, what is probably true about Mr. Reginald?

  • He teaches AP history and English.
  • He shares an office with Margaret Lewis.
  • He is a guidance counselor at the school.
  • He is one of the school's newest employees.

 What should a student who is having problems with an AP class do?

  • Stop taking the class
  • Speak with Margaret Lewis
  • Quit playing sports
  • Do fewer extracurricular activities

Read the following advertisement.

Sign up for Driver's Education Classes Today

     Are you going to turn sixteen years old within the next calendar year? If you are, then you should consider signing up for driver's education classes. As long as you have a driver's permit or license, then you are qualified to take a driver's ed class with an instructor at the Elite Driving Institute.

     What are the benefits of taking a driver's education course? First of all, you will learn all about how to drive a car. We can teach you to drive an automatic or manual transmission car. You will also learn how to become a safe driver. Remember that teen­agers are involved in more accidents than people in any other age group in the country. But, by taking driver's ed classes, you can significantly reduce your chances of getting in an accident. Last, but surely not least, when you finish the course, you will qualify for discounts of up to 25% on your driver's insurance. That will definitely make your parents happy.

     If you want more information, visit our office, send us an email, or call us during regular business hours. All of our contact information is available at the bottom of this ad.

 In paragraph 1, the word  qualified is closest in meaning to

  • sanctioned
  • requested
  • eligible
  • responsible

 What does the author imply about teenagers?

  • They are poor drivers.
  • They enjoy learning to drive.
  • They are good students.
  • They like driving to school.

 In paragraph 2, the word significantly is closest in meaning to

  • possibly
  • considerably
  • apparently
  • persistently

 Why does the author mention driver's insurance?

  • To point out how inexpensive it can be
  • To claim that teens are required to pay it
  • To explain how teens can get it reduced
  • To note why it costs so much for teenagers

 According to the advertisement, all of the following are advantages of taking driver's education classes EXCEPT

  • The person will spend less on insurance.
  • The person will become more skilled at driving.
  • The person will avoid getting in any accidents.
  • The person will learn to drive a manual transmission car.

 Where is the contact information for the driving institute listed?

  • In the phonebook
  • On the advertisement
  • On its website
  • In a brochure

Read the following passage.

     Monsoons are seasonal shifts in wind that are typically accom­panied by a great amount of rain. Many people are aware that monsoons take place in India, East Asia, and parts of Africa. Yet monsoons are known to occur in other parts of the world as well. One lesser-known region where they take place is the American state of Arizona. During the summer months, the wind in Arizona suddenly changes direction. It stops blowing from the west or northwest and instead begins to blow from a southern or southeastern direction.

     This shift in the wind is caused by two forces. First, a high-pressure system called the Bermuda High moves further to the north. At the same time, the heat­ing of the deserts in California, located west of Arizona, creates a low-pressure system. The winds then blow across Arizona from the high to low-pressure sys­tem. The wind shift - or monsoon - causes the weather to change in much of the state during the summer. The result is that the wind brings moist air from the Gulf of California and the Gulf of Mexico to Arizona. Large parts of Arizona is located in the Rocky Mountains, sit at high altitudes. Because of that, the moist air gets lifted into the atmosphere and forms clouds. What happens next is that there are massive thunderstorms all across Arizona.

     The monsoon season starts in Arizona in June. Thunderstorms are common occurrences from then until sometime between July and September. However, thunderstorms do not happen every day. There are recurring cycles instead. For several days, there are no storms at all, and then there are suddenly thunderstorms for several days in a row. Local residents refer to the rainy periods as bursts and the periods without rain as breaks. By the end of September, the monsoon season in Arizona has always concluded.

     While the summer winds and rains in Arizona appear to qualify the weather conditions for status as a monsoon, there are some meteorologists who disagree. They claim that the winds do not undergo a complete reversal in direction. In­stead, the winds only reverse to some degree. In their minds, this does not make the weather phenomenon in Arizona an actual monsoon.

 What is the passage mostly about?

  • Wind patterns in Arizona
  • The definition of a monsoon
  • Monsoons around the world
  • The summer monsoon in Arizona

 How does the wind start to blow in Arizona during the summer?

  • From the north
  • From the south
  • From the northwest
  • From the southwest

 According to the passage, where does the moist air that arrives in Arizona come from?

  • California
  • Bermuda
  • The Gulf of Mexico
  • The Rocky Mountains

 In paragraph 3, the word recurring is closest in meaning to

  • short-term
  • lengthy
  • random
  • habitual

 Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Arizona monsoon?

  • It can cause floods in some regions.
  • The season ends at different times each year.
  • People there enjoy the periods of rain.
  • There are more bursts than there are breaks.

 Which of the following is true regarding bursts?

  • They are periods of time with thunderstorms.
  • They happen at least twice each summer month.
  • They occur when no rain falls for some time.
  • They have become more severe recently.

 What does the author point out by writing that the winds only reverse to some degree in paragraph 4?

  • The winds continually blow hard.
  • The winds mostly stop blowing.
  • The winds partially change direction.
  • The winds become much stronger.

 In paragraph 4, the word their refers to

  • The summer winds and rains.
  • The weather conditions.
  • Meteorologists.
  • The winds.

Read the following passage.

     In Yellowstone National Park, one of the most popular sights is Old Faithful. Approximately every ninety minutes, it shoots streams of heated water high into the air. Old Faithful is a geyser. A geyser is a natural formation that spews water from underground into the air. 

     There are three factors that must exist for a region to have geysers. The first is that the region needs an underground heat source. This often comes from molten rock - called magma -that is relatively close to the surface. The heat from the mag­ma radiates into the surrounding rock, which then raises the temperature of the water. It is for this reason that most geysers are located in volcanically active areas. 

     The second factor is that there must be an underground source of water. The water can come from various sources, including rainfall, melted snow, and groundwater. The third and final factor is the presence of underground chambers and tunnels. Rocks near volcanoes are often porous, so they have a number of cracks, tunnels, and chambers. These combine to form something like the plumbing system in a house; this results in there being many places for water to flow through the ground. At times, there are narrow cracks in the rock that go all the way to the surface. When that happens - and when there is a large chamber full of water beneath the crack - a geyser is formed. 

     In order for a geyser to erupt, the following steps take place. First, water starts gathering in an underground chamber. There, it is heated and starts to rise to the surface through cracks in the ground. As the water moves away from the heat source, it cools. This cooled water presses down on the water beneath it. The water below gets trapped and is prevented from rising. While it remains unmoving, it begins to heat again. Soon, it becomes so hot that it turns to steam. The steam pushes the cooled water up toward the surface. By this point, the chamber has collected a large amount of water, all of which has been superheated while being subjected to a lot of pressure. The water in the chamber suddenly turns into steam. This causes the steam and water above it to explode violently through the cracks leading to the surface. Sometimes a column of steam and water dozens of meters high is expelled. Some geysers, such as Old Faithful, erupt on a regular basis. Others erupt more seldom whenever the conditions are right.

 What would be the best title for the passage?

  • Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park.
  • How a Geyser erupts?
  • Where Are the World's Geysers?
  • Geysers: How Many Are There?

 In paragraph 1, the word spews is closest in meaning to

  • heats
  • pours
  • pushes
  • sprays

 In paragraph 2, the word radiates is closest in meaning to

  • spreads out
  • shines
  • melts
  • disappears

 In paragraph 3, the word These refers to

  • various sources
  • rainfall, melted snow, and groundwater
  • rocks near volcanoes
  • cracks, tunnels, and chambers

 Which is NOT mentioned as a factor necessary for a geyser to exist?

  • Cracks leading to the surface
  • Underground water sources
  • Superheated lava in volcanoes
  • Tunnels located under the ground

 According to the passage, what is the first step involved in a geyser erupting?

  • Water must be heated so that it turns into steam
  • Extreme pressure is applied to the water source
  • A chamber underground begins to fill with water
  • Water starts to move upward through some cracks

 In paragraph 4, the word it refers to

  • the surface
  • the ground
  • the water
  • the heat source

 Based on the passage, what is probably true about Old Faithful?

  • It has a constant source of water.
  • No other geyser is as famous as it.
  • Tourists enjoy watching it erupt.
  • It erupts more than any other geyser in the world.

Read the following passage.

     The Victoria Cross is a medal given for bravery to soldiers in the British military. It is the highest honor a British soldier can receive on the field of battle. The most Victo­ria Crosses ever awarded for a single battle is eleven. These medals were earned at the Battle of Rorke's Drift, which was fought on January 22 and 23, 1879.

     In the 1800s, the British had a heavy presence in South Africa. Rorke's Drift was a small trading post and mission station that was on the border of lands belonging to the Natal and Zulu. These were two tribes of people that lived in South Africa at the time. The Zu­lus were fierce warriors with a strong army and competent leadership. In early 1879, the British and Zulus went to war in what be­came known as the Anglo-Zulu War. The war was fought due to the British attempt to conquer Zulu lands. 

     The onset of the war saw the British suffering a great loss at the Battle of Isandlwana. During the battle, more than 10,000 Zulus defeated and killed around 1,300 British and colonial soldiers. The Zulus then marched on Rorke's Drift, which was located nearby. The station was defended by about 300 men; half were British while the other half consisted of colonial troops. The men were led by Lieutenant John Chard, a British engineer. He had his men build stout defenses around the sta­tion prior to the Zulu's arrival.

     When the battle started, the Zulu warriors were unable to breach these defenses and penetrate the station. Had they done that, the battle would have become a massacre. Yet they were kept outside the walls of the station during the entire battle. In addition, Chard's men were equipped with rifles. The Zulus, meanwhile, mostly had spears as well as a few rifles that they had seized from fallen British soldiers. The fighting lasted nearly eleven hours. Eventually, the Zulus abandoned the field of battle and retreated during the night.

     The Zulu losses were estimated to be almost 1,000 dead and wounded. Chard's force, meanwhile, only suffered seventeen deaths. However, many more were badly wounded, and just about every man had some type of minor wound. Due to their heroic efforts, eleven of the defenders, including Chard himself, were awarded the Victoria Cross. The defense of Rorke's Drift was a strategic victory as it stalled the Zulus enough to give British reinforcements time to reach the area. Eventually, they were able to defeat the Zulus and end the war.

 What is the best title for the passage?

  • The Victoria Cross
  • The Anglo-Zulu War
  • The Battle of Rorke's Drift
  • Lieutenant John Chard

 In paragraph 2, the word These refers to

  • The British
  • A trading post and mission station
  • Lands
  • The Natal and Zulu

 In paragraph 2, the word competent is closest in meaning to

  • traditional
  • elected
  • warlike
  • skilled

 Why does the author mention the Battle of Isandlwana?

  • To explain where in South Africa it was fought.
  • To name the first battle of the Anglo Zulu War.
  • To claim it was the first defeat for the British in Africa.
  • To stress how important it was to the Zulus.

 Who was John Chard?

  • A representative of Queen Victoria.
  • The leader of the British at Rorke's Drift.
  • The owner of a British trading post.
  • A soldier who died at Isandlwana.

 In paragraph 3, the word stout is closest in meaning to

  • strategic
  • extensive
  • strong
  • high

 In paragraph 4, the word breach is closest in meaning to

  • burn
  • climb over
  • approach
  • break

 According to the passage, all of the following were results of the Battle of Rorke's Drift EXCEPT

  • The British forces held off the Zulus long enough to let others arrive.
  • The Zulus considered themselves to be the winners of the battle.
  • There were more than 1,000 casualties suffered by the Zulus.
  • Nearly one dozen British soldiers were awarded the Victoria Cross.