Đề ôn luyện thi vào lớp 10 Chuyên Sư phạm số 7

10/16/2020 5:05:00 PM

Choose the word which has the underlined part pronounced differently from the others.

  • acquisitive

  • personnel

  • dissolve

  • refusal

Choose the word which has the underlined part pronounced differently from the others.

  • algae

  • aegis

  • anchor

  • apparat

Choose the word that differs from the rest in the position of the main stress.

  • committee
  • internal
  • involvement
  • margarine
Choose the word that differs from the rest in the position of the main stress.
  • diversity
  • endanger
  • official
  • memory
Choose the word whose main stressed syllable is different from the rest.
  • managerial
  • determination
  • unbelievable
  • inability

I'll move ______ to achieve my goal.

  • heaven and earth
  • mountain and sea
  • paradise and hell
  • milky way and horizon
It _____ Sue that you saw last night. She's abroad with her family.
  • should have been
  • must have been
  • can't have been
  • needn't have been
_____ are the days when newspapers were full of misprints and spelling errors. These are now virtually things of the past.
  • Gone
  • Those
  • Done
  • They
The sky was gray and cloudy. _____, we went to the beach.
  • Consequently
  • Nevertheless
  • Even though
  • In spite of
We are prepared to overlook the error on this occasion _____ your previous good work.
  • thanks to
  • in the light of
  • with a view to
  • with regard to
According to the investigation, he died not from a blow to the head _______.
  • but of a heart attack
  • but his heart failed him
  • only of a heart attack
  • instead of his heart attack

She often appears not to care about her work, but appearences can be ______.

  • cunning
  • deceiful
  • deceptive
  • insincere

Nothing you say will make a _______ of difference to my decision.

  • fragment
  • scrap
  • gram
  • grain

I always get _____ in the stomach before sitting an exam.

  • worms
  • butterflies
  • crabs
  • ants

If you continue to _____ debts at this rate, you will have to declare bankruptcy eventually.

  • save
  • raise
  • incur
  • default

Penny: "Thank you so much for all your kindness and taking care of Oliver!"

Billy: "_____"

  • Not at all.
  • Can I get anything?
  • Oh, it was the least I could do.
  • Not mentioning it.

It’s pity that she had to pull out of the competition, especially since she ____ such excellent progress.

  • is making
  • made
  • has been making
  • had been making

_____ to the national park here, Ann was marveled at seeing the geyser.

  • Not having been
  • Being not
  • Not being
  • Having not been

It is the environmentalists’ political and economic pressure that has ______.

  • made possible the decrease in illegal whaling.
  • made it possible the decrease in illegal whaling.
  • been made possibly the decrease in illegal whaling.
  • been possibly made for the decrease in illegal whaling.

The teacher doled _____ the chocolates to his students for having done well in the examinations.

  • off
  • on
  • out
  • at

Complete the text by changing the form of the word in capitals.

Volunteer Project in Lesotho

Lesotho is a small independent nation in the middle of southern Africa. The (KING) of Lesotho lies more than 1,000 meters above sea level. With its wild (SPOIL) landscapes, it is a paradise for nature lovers and outdoor (ENTHUSIASM) and also offers the opportunity for visitors to gain (PRACTICE) experience of African culture. This is particularly true in the rural areas, where the distinctive and (COLOUR) traditions of the country are still very much alive. 
Volunteers are now needed for two related projects for a community-based organization in the Maletsunyane gorge, a remote and spectacular region in the highlands of Lesotho. One project will involve improving the (HAZARD) track used by both visitors and locals to reach the base of a waterfall in the gorge. For the second project, volunteers are needed to (TAKE) a biodiversity survey of the region. (FORTUNE), much of this area is suffering from overgrazing, hunting, and other activities that threaten the (SUSTAIN) of the land. 
Volunteers will be accommodated in shared rooms. There is a communal kitchen, and also a chance to experience the local restaurants. Special dietary (REQUIRE) can be provided for if advance notice is given. 

Write one word in each gap.

Early photography 

In the days of photography, a stand some other firm support for the camera was essential. This was because photographic materials were insensitive to light that a typical exposure lasted several seconds. The camera have to be held still for this time in order to obtain a sharp picture. The subjects also had to be still if their images were to register properly on the film. Some early street scenes include blurred, transparent, ghostlike images of people who wandered past while the scene was in the process of photographed. 
Studio portraits from the late 1800s show people posed rigidly, often leaning against furniture, helped them to remain motionless. As it was important to keep the head , support was often provided for the neck. Bright studio lights, sometimes produced by setting fire to a strip of magnesium or a small pile of magnesium powder, helped reducing the required exposure time. These burned with an intensely blue flame that gave the necessary amount of light, but the smoke was unpleasant and there was also a of fire. 
The problems with long exposure were overcome by the introduction of faster, more sensitive photographic plates, and later, roll films. The development of smaller cameras to photography becoming a popular hobby. Nowadays, digital cameras have further revolutionized photography, enabling even the most inexperienced photographers to produce professional-looking pictures. 

Read the text and choose the best answer to fill in the blanks.

The national park movement began in the United States in 1870 when a team of explorers suggested that part of the Yellowstone River region be in order to protect its geothermal , wildlife, forests, and scenery for the benefit' of future generations. Congress by creating Yellowstone National Park the world's first, in 1872.

The idea proved , and the number of national parks in this country grew rapidly, new parks being set up by presidential and sometimes as a result of gifts by states of the union or by individuals. Administration of this increasingly complex system was in the hands of the U.S. Army for thirty years from 1886, but then Congress created the National Park Service as part of the Department of the Interior to it.

Today, in addition to what might be thought of as typical national parks, the Service also manages places of historic interest, hiking trails, seashores, rivers, of scientific interest and memorials. In all, more than 300 entities are involved, covering over 32 million hectares. Each unit is directed by a superintendent who is responsible for all aspects of the operation. Staff administrative personnel and, according to the nature of the unit, park rangers, naturalists, historians, and workers.

Read the following passage then choose the best answer to each question below.

The Amazonian wilderness harbors the greatest number of species on this planet and is an irreplaceable resource for present and future generations. Amazonia is crucial for maintaining global climate and genetic resources, and its forest and rivers provide vital sources of food, building materials, pharmaceuticals, and water needed by wildlife and humanity.

The Los Amigos watershed in the state of Madre de Dios, southeastern Peru, is representative of the pristine lowland moist forest once found throughout most of upper Amazonian South America. Threats to tropical forests occur in the form of fishing, hunting, gold mining, timber extraction, impending road construction, and slash and burn agriculture. The Los Amigos watershed, consisting of 1.6 million - hectares (3.95 million acres), still offers the increasingly scarce opportunity to study rainforest as it was before the disruptive encroachment of modern human civilization. Because of its relatively pristine condition and the immediate need to justify it as a conservation zone and as a corridor between Manu National Park and the Tambopata-Candamo Reserved Zone, this area deserves intensive, long-term projects aimed at botanical training, ecotourism, biological inventory, and information synthesis.

On July 24, 2001, the government of Peru and the Amazon Conservation Association, represented by Enrique Ortiz, signed a contractual agreement creating the first long-term permanently renewable conservation concession. To our knowledge, this is the first such agreement to be implemented in the world. The conservation concession protects 340,000 acres of old-growth Amazonian forest in the Los Amigos watershed which is located in southeastern Peru. This watershed protects the eastern flank of Manu National Park and is part of the lowland forest corridor that links it to Bahuaja-Sonene National Park. The Los Amigos conservation concession will serve as a mechanism for the development of a regional center of excellence in natural forest management and biodiversity science.

Several major projects being implemented at the Los Amigos Conservation Area. Louise Emmons is initiating studies of mammal diversity and ecology in the Los Amigos area. Other projects involve studies of the diversity of arthropods, amphibians, reptiles, and birds. Robin Foster has conducted botanical studies at Los Amigos, resulting in the labeling of hundreds of plant species along two kilometers of trail in upland and lowland forest. Los Amigos has also been a major field site for Robin's rapid identification laminated photographic field guides to tropical plants. Michael Goulding is leading a fishery and aquatic ecology program, which aims to document the diversity of fish, their ecologies, and their habitats in the Los Amigos area and the Madre de Dios watershed in general.

With support from the Amazon Conservation Association, and in collaboration with US and Peruvian colleagues, the Botany of the Los Amigos project has-been initiated. At Los Amigos, we are attempting to develop a system of preservation, sustainability, and scientific research; a marriage between various disciplines, from human ecology to economic botany, product marketing to forest management. The complexity of the ecosystem will best be understood through a multidisciplinary approach, and improved understanding of the complexity will lead to better management. In essence, we must be informed to make wise management decisions about Amazonian forests. These forests hold the greatest number of species on our planet and are an irreplaceable resource for present and future generations. The future of these forests will depend on sustainable management and development of alternative practices and products that do not require irreversible destruction.

The botanical project will provide a foundation of information that is essential to other programs at Los Amigos. By combining botanical studies with fisheries and mammology, we will better understand plant/ animal interactions. By providing names, the botanical program will facilitate accurate communication about plants and the animals that use them. Included in this scenario are humans, as we will dedicate time to people-plant interactions in order to learn what plants are used by people in the Los Amigos area, and what plants could potentially be used by people.

To be informed, we must develop knowledge. To develop knowledge, we must collect, organize, and disseminate information. In this sense, botanical information has conservation value. Before we can use plant-based products from the forest, we must know what species are useful. We must know what their names are in order to be able to communicate accurately about them. We must be able to identify them, to know where they occur in the forest, how many of them exist, how they are pollinated, and when they produce fruit (or other useful products). Aside from understanding the species as they occur locally at Los Amigos, we must have information about their overall distribution -in tropical America in order to better understand and manage the distribution, variation, and viability of their genetic diversity and germplasm. This involves a more complete understanding of the species through studies in the field and herbarium.

The phrase "genetic resources" in paragraph 1 refers to ____.
  • plant seeds
  • different races of people
  • diverse species of plants and animals
  • cells that can be used in genetic cures for diseases
In paragraph 2, the author emphasizes that the current environmental condition of Amazonian South America is _____.
  • mostly unscathed
  • restorable through his project
  • irredeemable everywhere but in the Los Amigos watershed
  • varying from destroyed to virtually pristine
The word "encroachment" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to _____.
  • intrusion
  • augmentation
  • infringement
  • seepage
The author implies in paragraph three that the agreement between Peru and the Amazon Conservation Association is history primarily because it _____.
  • was the first long-term agreement regarding land in the Amazon Rainforest
  • represented the first time a South American government had agreed to renew a conservation agreement
  • is essentially a permanent conservation agreement
  • represents the first time such an agreement has been in the form of a renewable contract
The author's main purpose in the passage is to _____.
  • demonstrate that conservation efforts have been historically successful and so should be continued
  • garner support for opposition to destructive activities in the Los Amigos watershed
  • position the Los Amigos watershed agreement as a success towards the achievement of the vital goal of conservation the Amazonian rainforests
  • argue that the study pristine rainforests is essential for documenting and studying the myriad new species that the forests contain
The author's tone in-the passage can be best described as _____.
  • advocacy for his project over the other competing projects
  • general praise for conservation projects in Amazonian South America
  • passionate support for his and related projects
  • zealous advocacy for his point of view
The work of Louise Emmons, Robin Foster, and Michael Goulding (in paragraph 4) are employed in the passage as _____.
  • colleagues of the author's in his botanical project
  • examples of the kinds of activities the author and his colleagues are trying to halt
  • scientists who are representative of new trends of study in Amazonian botany
  • scientists involved in projects related and amenable to the author's
The author's botanical project involved all of the following EXCEPT _____.
  • studying plants in laboratory
  • studying how plants are used by humans and animals
  • facilitating pharmaceutical use of plants
  • labeling plants in the Los Amigos area
When the author says that the botanical project will "provide names" he means that the project will _____.
  • help recognize new species
  • aid in the standardization of names for new species
  • participate in naming the region's different zones
  • clarify the conclusion surrounding the names of different organizations working in Amazonia
When the author says that botanical information has conservation value he means that _____.
  • a robust understanding of conservationism is aided by botanical information
  • conservationists should strive to preserve botanical information
  • specification is of importance for conservation
  • political discussions about conservation should use botanical-nomenclature

Read the text below and look carefully at each sentence. Find errors at each sentence and correct them (there may be more than one error in each sentence). 

If there is no mistake, write "x" in both blanks.

(1) Whirlwind, any rotating air mass, include the tornado and the large cyclonic and anti-cyclonic storm. (2) In meteorology, the term whirlwind is more strictly application to the smaller swirling atmospheric phenomenon commonly known as dust devil or dust whirl, which occurs mostly over deserts and semiarid plains during hot, calm days. (3) The principle cause of whirlwind-is intense insulation, or incoming solar radiation received from the earth, which produces an overheated air mass just above the ground. (4) This air mass arises, usually in the form of a cylindrical-column, sucks up loose surface material, just as dust, sand, and leaves. (5) Whirlwinds vary with height from 30 to 152 m, but exceptionally vigorous dust devils may exceed I, 524 m in height. (6) The vortices of whirlwinds range in size from a few meters to several hundred meters and, depend on their force and size, dust devils may disappear in seconds or last several hours. (7) Brief whirlwinds are erratic in motions, but the longer-lasting ones move slowly with the prevailing wind.

Mistake(s) in sentence (1):

Error: => Correction:

Mistake(s) in sentence (2):

Error: => Correction:

Mistake(s) in sentence (3):

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Mistake(s) in sentence (4):

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Mistake(s) in sentence (5):

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Mistake(s) in sentence (6):

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Mistake(s) in sentence (7):

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List of Headings

A. A fresh and important long-term goal
B. Charging for roads and improving other transport methods
C. Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported
D. Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns
E. The environmental costs of road transport
F. The escalating cost of rail transport
G. The need to achieve transport rebalance
H. The rapid growth of private transport
I. Plans to develop major road networks
K. Restricting road use through charging policies alone
L. Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission

European Transport Systems 1990 - 2010

What have been the trends and what are the prospects for European transport systems?

Paragraph 1:
It is difficult to conceive of vigorous economic growth without an efficient transport system. Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to increase. There are two key factors behind this trend. For passenger transport, the determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, and in the next decade, the EU will see a further substantial increase in its fleet.

Paragraph 2:
As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production. In the last 20 years, as internal frontiers have been abolished, the EU has moved from a ”stock” economy to a ”flow” economy. This phenomenon has been emphasized by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labor intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometers away from the final assembly plant or away from users.

Paragraph 3:
The strong economic growth expected in countries that are candidates for entry to the EU will also increase transport flows, in particular, road haulage traffic. In 1998, some of these countries already exported more than twice their 1990 volumes and imported more than five times their 1990 volumes. And although many candidate countries inherited a transport system which encourages rail, the distribution between modes has tipped sharply in favour of road transport since the 1990s. Between 1990 and 1998,road haulage increased by 19.4%, while during the same period rail haulage decreased by 43.5%, although – and this could benefit the enlarged EU – it is still on average at a much higher level than in existing member states.

Paragraph 4:
However, a new imperative-sustainable development – offers an opportunity for adapting the EU's common transport policy. This objective, agreed by the Gothenburg European Council, has to be achieved by integrating environmental considerations into Community policies, and shifting the balance between modes of transport lies at the heart of its strategy. The ambitious objective can only be fully achieved by 2020, but proposed measures are nonetheless a first essential step towards a sustainable transport system which will ideally be in place in 30 years‟ time, that is by 2040.

Paragraph 5:
In 1998, energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28% of emissions of CO2,the leading greenhouse gas. According to the latest estimates, if nothing is done to reverse the traffic growth trend, CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by around 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020,compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990. Once again, road transport is the main culprit since it alone accounts for 84% of the CO2 emissions attributable to transport. Using alternative fuels and improving energy efficiency is thus both an ecological necessity and a technological challenge.

Paragraph 6:
At the same time, greater efforts must be made to achieve a modal shift. Such a change cannot be achieved overnight, all the less so after over half a century of constant deterioration in favor of road. This has reached such a pitch that today rail freight services are facing marginalization, with just 8% of market share, and with international goods trains struggling along at an average speed of 18km/h. Three possible options have emerged.

Paragraph 7:
The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through pricing. This option would not be accompanied by complementary measures in the other modes of transport. In the short term, it might curb the growth in road transport through the better loading ratio of goods vehicles and occupancy rates of passenger vehicles expected as a result of the increase in the price of transport. However, the lack of measures available to revitalize other modes of transport would make it impossible for more sustainable modes of transport to take up the baton.

Paragraph 8:
The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology). However, this approach does not include investment in new infrastructure, nor does it guarantee better regional cohesion. It could help to achieve greater uncoupling than the first approach, but road transport would keep the lion‟s share of the market and continue to concentrate on saturated arteries, despite being the most polluting of the modes. It is therefore not enough to guarantee the necessary shift of the balance.

Mr. Conrad's son is becoming quite well-known as an artist. 

=> Mr. Conrad's son is making .......... himself as an artist.

Because of its price, the book may never become a bestseller.

=> The price of the book may .......... a bestseller.

By the time we got to the sale, every book had been sold.

=> By the time we got to the sale, there .......... book left.

 

He didn't understand exactly what was wrong until he read Julie's letter.

=> It .......... he read Julie's letter that he understood exactly what was wrong.

I am going to eat less chocolate this year.

=> I am going to ........... of chocolate I eat this year.

It is essential that this door is kept unlocked. (SHOULD)

=> On no .......... locked.

When it comes to punctuality, Fiona really takes after her mother. (CONCERNED)

=> As .........., Fiona really takes after her mother.

It seems unbelievable that this jewellery is almost a thousand years old when it is so well preserved. (HARD)

=> This jewellery is in such good .......... believe that it is almost a thousand years old.

You have to be very patient to work as a primary school teacher these days. (DEAL)

=> Working as a primary school teacher calls .......... these days.

None of the other team members supported Terry's ideas. (SUPPORT)

=> Terry's idea met .......... the other members of the team.