Đề ôn luyện thi vào lớp 10 Chuyên Sư phạm số 15

4/3/2021 1:27:00 PM

Choose the word which has the underlined part pronounced differently from the others.

  • delete

  • defame

  • deplete

  • denim

Choose the word which has the underlined part pronounced differently from the others.

  • paragraph 

  • infographic 

  • telegraphy 

  • metaphor 

Choose the word that differs from the rest in the position of the main stress.

  • reinvasion
  • television
  • redivision
  • imprecision

Choose the word that differs from the rest in the position of the main stress.

  • allegedly
  • supposedly
  • purportedly
  • flusteredly

Choose the word that differs from the rest in the position of the main stress.

  • bullet
  • coupon
  • choir
  • facade
He _____ the illusion that he will live to be a hundred.
  • grows
  • relishes
  • develops
  • cherishes
_____ native to Europe, the daisy has now spread throughout most of North America.
  • Although
  • If it were
  • In spite of
  • That it is
I need to _____ your offer very carefully before I make a decision.
  • look over
  • see out
  • figure out
  • mull over
It took Dane a long time to understand what was going on. He's usually _____ than that, isn't it?
  • round the bend
  • harder and faster
  • easier on the ear
  • quicker on the uptake

Why are you so mad? ~ You _____ me you weren't coming to dinner. I waited for you for two hours.

  • should tell
  • ought to tell
  • should have told
  • should be told
Although she would have preferred to carry on working, my mum _____ her career in order to have children.
  • devoted
  • repealed
  • sacrificed
  • abolished
I find the offer quite ______ but I think I'd rather study at Oxford.
  • tempting
  • desirous
  • inclined
  • envious
I don't normally like noisy clubs, but I had a sudden _____ to see what the Blue Parrot was like.
  • force
  • motive
  • pressure
  • impulse
I wish you would stop wasting so much on your computer games and do something like a little more _____.
  • welcome
  • enviable
  • feasible
  • worthwhile
He _____ us on the last day of the congress so his presence at the opening ceremony was something of a surprise.
  • must have joined
  • was to join
  • had to join
  • should join

Complete the sentence by changing the form of the word in capitals.

Alicia Rhett was an actress who rose to international (STAR) in the 1939 film Gone With the Wind. In the film, which enjoyed (PHENOMENON) success and is among the most popular ever made, she played the part of India Wilkes, the serious young woman whose love for the dull and timid (CENTRE)  character, Charles Hamilton, is spurned in favour of Scarlett O’Hara. Despite the film’s (LAST)  acclaim, however, it was to be her only screen role.

While Alicia later insisted that she ‘enjoyed the experience (IMMENSE) ’, she was unsuited to the life of a Hollywood star. An intensely private individual, she lacked the drive and ambition of (CONTEMPORARY) like Joan Crawford or Bette Davis, and went on to reject all subsequent roles from agents and (PRODUCE) . Though fans continued to hound her with requests for (SIGN) photographs seven decades later, letters went (ANSWER) and requests for interviews were seldom granted.

Instead, Alicia concentrated her energies on a long-standing talent for painting and soon acquired a (CONSIDER) reputation with her portraits of debutantes, society presidents and other members of Charleston's aristocracy.

Complete the passage with the words given.

Legal fight hits music pirates

The global recording industry has launched its largest wave of legal against people suspected of music files on the internet. The latest move by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) 2,100 alleged uploaders using peer-to-peer (P2P) networks in 16 nations the UK, France, Germany and Italy. Thousands of people have agreed to pay compensation since the campaign began. In the US, civil lawsuits have been against more than 15,597 people since September 2003 and there have been 3,590 settlements. 'This is a significant of our enforcement actions against people who are uploading and distributing music on p2p networks,' said IFPI chief John Kennedy. 'Thousands of people - mostly internet-savvy men in their 20s or 30s - have learned to their the legal and financial risks involved in file-sharing copyrighted music in large quantities.' Individual cases are generally brought by the national associations representing the recording industry, and in some cases by the labels, civil complaints. The UK record industry has so far brought 97 cases, with a 65 covered by the latest action. More than 140,000 in compensation has been paid to the British Phonographic Industry by 71 individuals. Those who fail to resolve cases face civil court action.

Fill in each of the numbered blanks in the following passage with ONE suitable word.

People who are of sleep lose energy and become quick-tempered. After two days without sleep, a person finds lengthy concentration becomes difficult. He can force to perform tasks well for short periods, but he is easily from them. He makes many , especially at routine tasks, and his attention slips at . Every “sleepless” person experiences periods in which he off for a few seconds or more. He completely asleep unless he is kept active continuously.

People who go on suffering sleep deprivation more than three days have great trouble thinking, seeing and hearing clearly. They have periods of hallucination during which they see things that do not really exist. They also confuse day-dreams with real life and track of their thoughts in the middle of a sentence.

Reading the following passage and complete the tasks.

LOOKING IN THE TELESCOPE

A story is told that around 400 years ago some children were fooling around in an eye glass shop. They noticed that when they placed lenses one on top of the other, they were able to see a considerable distance. They played around with the concept for a while, experimenting with what happened when they varied the distance between the lenses. Hans Lippershey, the Dutch lens maker who eventually applied for the first telescope patent, credits children as having been his motivation for the invention of the first telescope.

The first telescopes built in the early 1600s were very primitive inventions allowing the user to see around 3-times further than the naked eye. It was not too long however, until Italian astronomer Galileo heard about the invention ‘that through use of correctly-positioned lenses, allowed people to see things a long way away’. The tools used in the manufacturing of the first refracting telescope was all Galileo needed to know and within 24 hours he had developed a better one. In fact, the process of improvements Galileo made on Lippershey’s telescope were quite dramatic. Whereas the original version had a magnification of 3, the new telescope had a magnification of around 30. Galileo achieved these extraordinary results by figuring out the combination of the positions of the lenses and also by making his own lenses which were of better quality. Although he originally thought they were stars, the better quality lenses – and some scientific analysis – enabled him to eventually use his telescopes to see the moons of Jupiter. Galileo’s refracting telescopes – so-called due to the way they handled the light that passed through them – were the standard at that time.

Some 70 years later, British scientist Isaac Newton, explored the way a prism refracts1 white light into an array of colors. He recognised that a lens was a circular prism and that the separation of colors limited the effectiveness of the telescopes in use at the time. Newton created a Reflective Telescope, one that used a dish-shaped or parabolic mirror to collect light and concentrate the image before it was visible in the eyepiece. Thus, lenses used for magnification in telescopes were replaced by mirrors. Mirrors have since been the standard for telescopes. In fact, according to telescope researcher Dr. Carl Addams, the basic designs of telescopes have not changed much in the last 100 years. What has changed however, is the way technology has been used to improve them. For example, the larger telescopes in the world today are around 10 metres in diameter and the mirrors placed within them are so finely polished that even at the microscopic level there are no scratches or bumps on them at all. To achieve such a flawless surface requires a very expensive process that operates with the utmost precision.

The mid 1700s, saw the discovery and production of the Achromatic telescope. This type of telescope differed from previous ones in the way it handled the different wavelengths of light. The first person who succeeded in making achromatic refracting telescopes seems to have been the Englishman, Chester Moore Hall. The telescope design used two pieces of special optical glass known as crown and flint Each side of each piece was ground and polished and then the two pieces were assembled together. Achromatic lenses bring two wavelengths – typically red and blue – into focus in the same plane. Makers of achromatic telescopes had difficulty locating disks of flint glass of suitable purity needed to construct them. In the late 1700s, prizes were offered by the French Academy of Sciences for any chemist or glass-manufacturer that could create perfect discs of optical flint glass however, no one was able to provide a large disk of suitable purity and clarity.

Currently the largest telescopes are around eight to ten metres in size. These extremely expensive and sophisticated pieces of equipment are located primarily throughout Europe and America. Dr Addams believes that the telescopes of the future will be a gigantic improvement in what is currently considered state-of-the-art. Telescopes that are 20 or 30 metres in diameter are currently being planned, and there has been a suggestion put forward by a European firm that they would like to build a 100-metre telescope. Says Addams, ‘The quality of the glass needed to build a 100 meter telescope is like building a lens the size of a football field and having the largest bump in that football field being a ten-thousandth of a human hair’. The engineering and technology required to build such a flawless reflective surface is most impressive.

1: The separation or change of direction of a ray of light when passed through a glass of water.

 

According to the writer, the first telescope was _____

 
  • invented by children.
  • made by a lens maker.
  • a reflective telescope.
  • quite a complex piece of equipment.

The writer states that Galileo _____

 
  • improved on the design of the first telescope.
  • created the first reflective telescope.
  • took 24 hours to make a reflective telescope.
  • allowed people to see 3 times further than the first telescope.

The Galileo telescope was better than the first telescope because it _____

 
  • used mirrors rather than glass.
  • was longer than the first telescope.
  • used better lens positioning and quality.
  • used better quality lenses and glass.

The writer states that today large telescopes are _____

 
  • 20 or 30 metres in size.
  • as big as 100 metres.
  • very costly items.
  • as good as will ever be built.

Large, powerful telescopes are difficult to build because _____

 
  • designs have not changed in nearly 100 years.
  • it is difficult to locate the flint glass needed for them.
  • the area needed to house the telescope is simply too large.
  • the lenses must be extremely reflective.

Classify the following features as belonging to. You may use each option more than once.

A. the Achromatic telescope

B. the Reflective telescope

C. the Refracting telescope


The first telescopes made.

Uses a series of lenses one on top of the other.

Highly polished lenses.

First use of mirrors to collect light.

Two pieces of glass stuck together.

 

Complete the summary below using words from the passage.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

There have been a number of changes in telescopes since they were first invented. For example, Galileo’s telescope increased magnification of the previously made telescope by a factor of 30. He did this by altering the lenses and also constructing lenses .

Other improvements followed but the most significant step forward, and still a major factor today in telescope design, has been the inclusion of .

Read the following passage and choose which of the headings from A - N match the blanks. There are two extra headings, which do not match any of the paragraphs.

List of headings

A. An unexpected preference for modern items

B. Two distinct reasons for selection in one type of museum

C. The growing cost of housing museum exhibits

D. The growing importance of collections for research purposes

E. The global size of the problem

F. Why some collections are unsafe

G. Why not all museums are the same

H. The need to show as much as possible to visitors

I. How unexpected items are dealt with

K. The decision-making difficulties of one curator

L. The two rules of museums

M. Who owns the museum exhibits?

N. A lengthy, but necessary task 

Behind the scenes at the museum

With more and more of what museums own ending up behind locked doors, curators are hatching plans to widen access to their collections

1.

When, in 1983, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, in Washington, DC, decided it had run out of space, it began transferring part of its collection from the cramped attic and basement rooms where the specimens had been languishing to an out-of-town warehouse. Restoring those specimens to pristine condition was a monumental task. One member of staff, for example, spent six months doing nothing but gluing the legs back on to crane flies. But 30m items—and seven years—later, the job was done.

 2.

At least for the moment. For the Smithsonian owns 130m plants, animals, rocks and fossils, and that number is growing at 2-3% a year. On a global scale, however, such numbers are not exceptional. The Natural History Museum in London has 80m specimens. And, in a slightly different scientific context, the Science Museum next door to it has 300,000 objects recording the history of science and technology. Deciding what to do with these huge accumulations of things is becoming a pressing problem. They cannot be thrown away, but only a tiny fraction can be put on display.

3.

The huge, invisible collections behind the scenes at science and natural history museums are the result of the dual roles of these institutions. On the one hand, they are places for the public to go and gawp. On the other, they are places of research—and researchers are not interested merely in the big, showy things that curators like to reveal to the public.

4.

Blythe House in West London, the Science Museum's main storage facility, has, as might be expected, cabinets full of early astronomical instruments such as astrolabes, celestial globes and orreries. But it is also home to such curios as Canopic jars, which were used by the ancient Egyptians to store embalmed viscera. And the museum is custodian to things that are dangerous. It holds a lot of the equipment of Sir William Crookes, a 19th-century scientist who built the first cathode-ray tubes, experimented with radium, and also discovered thallium—an extremely poisonous element. He was a sloppy worker. All his equipment was contaminated with radioactive materials, but he worked in an age when nobody knew about the malevolent effects of radioactivity.

5.

The public is often surprised at the Science Museum's interest in recent objects. Mr Brown says he frequently turns down antique brass and mahogany electrical instruments. “I say, it's very nice but no, I don't want it, because our stores are full of them. But when you are finished with that aluminium and plastic digital thing we'd be interested in that. People double-take.” Sure enough, a random scan of the museum's recent accessions reveals the following items: the Atomic domestic coffee maker, a 114-piece DIY toolkit with canvas case, and a green beer bottle.

6.

Natural history museums collect for a different reason. Their accumulations are part of attempts to identify and understand the natural world. Some of the plants and animals they hold are “type specimens”. In other words, they are the standard reference unit, like a reference weight or length, for the species in question. Other specimens are valuable because of their age. One of the most famous demonstrations of natural selection in action was made using museum specimens. A study of moths collected over a long period of time showed that their wings became darker (which made them less visible to insectivorous birds) as the industrial revolution made Britain more polluted.

7.

Year after year, the value of such collections quietly and reliably increases, as researchers find uses that would have been unimaginable to those who started them a century or two ago. Genetic analysis, pharmaceutical development, biomimetics (engineering that mimics nature to produce new designs) and biodiversity mapping are all developments that would have been unimaginable to the museums' founders.

8.

But as the collections grow older, they grow bigger. Insects may be small, but there are millions of them, and entomologists would like to catalogue every one. And when the reference material is a pair of giraffes or a blue whale (each vertebra being almost the size of a chair and the jawbone weighing at least half a tonne), space becomes a problem. That is why museums such as the Smithsonian are increasingly forced to turn to out-of-town storage facilities. But museums that show the public only a small fraction of their material risk losing the fickle goodwill of governments and the public, which they need to keep running. Hence the determination of so many museums to make their back-room collections more widely available.

Complete the second sentence using the word given so that it has the same meaning to the first.

The rocketing prices have proved too much for most salaried people. (cope) 

=> ............

Complete the second sentence using the word given so that it has the same meaning to the first.

The young actress was very nervous before the audition. (butterflies)

=> ..........

Complete the second sentence using the word given so that it has the same meaning to the first.

He causes so much trouble that we can do nothing besides from leaving him to worry and suffer the unpleasant effect of his own actions. (juice)

=> As .........

Complete the second sentence using the word given so that it has the same meaning to the first.

The boys fixed all their attention on what the teacher was saying in order not to miss any small details. (zeroed)

=> ..........

Complete the second sentence using the word given so that it has the same meaning to the first.

The club has been very successful since the beginning of the season. (on)

=> ..........

Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning to the first.

A new flu vaccine has been on trial since the beginning of the year.

=> They ..........

Complete the second sentence so that it has the same meaning to the first.

He declared his disapproval of the behavior of some of his supporters.

=> He let it ..........

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one.

They didn't ask me anything about my plans for the summer.

=> Not ............

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one.

Managing the company will probably be much more complicated than they say.

=> Managing the company should not be anything ..........

Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

Peter hadn't expected to see so many foreigners at the party.

=> It came as ..........

Write a paragraph of approximately 140 words to answer the following question. 

Is it better to have a few close friends or a large group of friends?