Bài tập hoàn thành câu - Thể hoàn thành của động từ khuyết thiếu

3/27/2020 10:11:16 PM

Oh dear, my fruit cake is a little too sweet. I ____ the amount of sugar I add to the mixture next time.

  • have been reducing
  • should have reduced
  • will have to reduce
  • is going to reduce

I suppose I _____ to type his report for him, but, at the time, I didn’t know how important it was.

  • have had offer
  • may have offered
  • could have offered
  • would rather offer

Thể hoàn thành của động từ khuyết thiếu (Modal Perfect) được dùng để diễn tả một khả năng, một kỳ vọng, xác suất xảy ra của một sự việc hoặc để phê phán ai/sự việc gì đó.

Cấu trúc chung: Modal V + have + V(pp)

I. Must have + V(pp) Can't/Couldn't have + V(pp)

1. Must have + V(pp): Chắc hẳn đã làm gì - suy đoán một việc chắc chắn đã xảy ra trong quá khứ dựa vào những chứng cứ có được.

E.g.: He was there all day. They must have seen him.

2. Can't/Couldn't have + V(pp): Chắc hẳn đã không làm gì - phủ định của cấu trúc "Must have + V(pp)"

E.g.: He wasn't there yesterday. They can't have seen him.

Đây là các cấu trúc thường gặp nhất trong các đề thi THPT QG, các em hãy đặc biệt lưu ý nhé.

Choose the correct answer.

You look so tired! You ____________ out too late last night.

  • must have been
  • had been
  • had to be
  • should have been

Choose the correct answer.

That style of dress _______ have been designed by Titian, because it wasn’t worn till after his death.

  • must
  • might
  • can’t
  • shouldn’t

II. Should(n't) have + V(pp): lẽ ra đã (không) nên làm gì - nhưng thực tế thì ngược lại


  • You should have said sorry yesterday. Today is too late.
  • The girl shouldn't have spun around so many times. She got dizzy and fell down.

The authorities _____ action to stop illegal purchases of wild animals and their associated products effectively. However, they didn’t do so.

  • must have taken
  • had to take
  • might have taken
  • should have taken

Choose the correct answer.

You knew that we had to walk a long way today, so you really ____ those high heeled shoes. You only have yourself to blame for your aching feet.

  • don’t have to wear
  • must not have worn
  • shouldn’t have worn
  • can’t have worn

III. Needn’t have V(pp): lẽ ra đã không cần làm gì - nhưng thực tế thì đã làm

E.g.: They needn’t have brought the camera, as they didn’t use them.

* Lưu ý: Cấu trúc "needn’t have V(pp)" không được dùng ở thể khẳng định.

Sai: Tom need have gone to school. - câu vô nghĩa

=> Đúng: Tom needn't have gone to school.

Choose the correct answer.

I __________the garden. No sooner had I finished watering it than it came down in torrents.

  • shouldn’t have watered
  • mustn’t have watered
  • can’t have watered
  • needn’t have watered

You have gone to the doctor’s to have a check-up, but you _____. You just had one last week.

  • didn’t need to go
  • needn’t have gone
  • needn’t go
  • don’t need to go

IV. Could/ May/ Might + have V(pp): có thể đã xảy ra trong quá khứ 


  • John looks worried. He could/may/might have had another fight with his boss.
  • She may/might/could have forgotten to come to the meeting.

- Khi suy luận một việc có thể đã không xảy ra trong quá khứ, chúng ta dùng may not/might not + have V(pp) 


  • Their information might not/may not be correct.
  • They mightn’t have got correct data.

- không dùng "could not have V(pp)" với ý nghĩa trên. (Xem thêm "Couldn't have V(pp)" ở phần I.)

Choose the correct answer.

I’d like to have some people for dinner tonight, but it is too late to ask anyone because they ____ their plans already.

  • had better make
  • used to make
  • are making
  • may have made

V. Ghi nhớ

Cấu trúc chung của các động từ khuyết thiếu ở thể hoàn thành: Modal V + have + V(pp) 

Việc quyết định sử dụng chính xác động từ khuyết thiếu nào ở thể hoàn thành phụ thuộc rất nhiều vào nghĩa của câu (ngữ cảnh). Vì vậy, để làm tốt dạng bài hoàn thành câu với thể hoàn thành của động từ khuyết thiếu, các em cần nắm được nghĩa khái quát mà câu muốn truyền tải nhé.


Choose the correct answer.

Since they aren't answering their telephone, they___________

  • must have left
  • should have left
  • need have left
  • can have left

Tom looks so frightened and upset. He _____ something terrible.

  • must experience
  • could have experienced
  • should have experienced
  • must have experienced

John failed again. He _____ harder.

  • must have tried
  • should have tried
  • can't have tried
  • may have tried

Choose the correct answer.

They ____ their house yet. They only put it up for sale yesterday.

  • haven’t been selling
  • might not be selling
  • needn’t have sold
  • can’t have sold

We found the exam extremely easy. We _____ so hard.

  • needn’t study
  • needn’t be studying
  • needn’t have studied
  • needn’t have been studied

Choose the correct answer.

Why did you bother so much trying to change your money? You ____ it, you know, as they accept US dollars in Mexico.

  • couldn’t have changed
  • haven’t changed
  • didn’t use to change
  • needn’t have changed

That cannot be a true story. He ______ it up.

  • must have made
  • should have made
  • would have made
  • can have made

David was deported on account of his expired visa. He _____ it renewed.

  • must have had
  • should have had
  • needn’t have had
  • mightn’t have had

I ____ my car last week if I had accepted James’ offer. He offered me two thousand dollars for it, but I wanted more.

  • used to sell
  • could have sold
  • had sold
  • was able to sell

Choose the correct answer.

A: Peter in the accounts department retired yesterday.

B: He ____ permanently yesterday. I saw him at his desk only this morning.

A: Oh well, he had his retirement presentation yesterday, but perhaps that was because the chairman was here. Maybe he is leaving on Friday.

  • can’t have left
  • ought not to leave
  • hasn’t left
  • needn’t have left

They were at the stadium with us last night, so they _____ at the theatre then.

  • needn't have been
  • should have been
  • might have been
  • can't have been

She ______ the flowers. If she had, they wouldn't have died.

  • may not have watered
  • shouldn't have watered
  • can't have watered
  • might not have watered

Choose the correct answer.

There is no excuse for your late submission! You ______ the report by last Friday.

  • mightn't have finished
  • should have finished
  • needn't have finished
  • must have finished

Choose the correct answer.

A: "Hopefully, Peter booked the tickets for us yesterday."

B: "He __________them yesterday. The booking office is closed on Saturdays."

A: "Oh well, I’m sure he’ll order them tomorrow then."

  • had better not looked
  • hasn’t booked
  • couldn’t have booked
  • needn’t have booked